[Published in the May 2006 issue
of Indiana Game and Fish Magazine, to which the writer is a regular
Larger lakes and reservoirs of the northern part
of Indiana get a lot of lip service from bass anglers, but there are literally
hundreds of smaller standing waters that offer a lot of opportunity for
Sure, the larger, much-heralded lakes and reservoirs
absorb the lion’s share of the bass action in Hoosier waters, but there
are many smaller standing waters that host good numbers of black bass (primarily
largemouth), not to mention some husky fish.
Here’s what Bill James, chief of the Division
of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) Fisheries section says about smaller standing
waters and their importance to the overall bass fishery picture of Indiana:
“A healthy and desirable largemouth bass population
has good numbers of small, intermediate and larger sized bass, growth rates
that are average or better, good recruitment of new bass most years, and
the presence of some really big, old bass.
“In general, it's harder to maintain desirable
bass populations in ponds and small lakes than in large lakes and reservoirs.
Why? Smaller waters are more prone to having things
bumped out of balance. For instance, a typical one-acre pond in Indiana
may only support 35 pounds or so of bass. That could be 35 one pound
bass, 70 half pound bass or any combination of sizes that adds up to the
carrying capacity (about 35 pounds) for that particular pond. It's
not difficult to remove too many bass from these small waters. In fact,
one fisherman could potentially remove enough bass on one trip to upset
the apple cart. That's why bag limits, size limits and catch-and-release
are vitally important for maintaining desirable bass fishing.
“The good news is that with gentle handling, bass
can be recycled: they can be caught and released over and over. Bass
don't grow as fast as some people think. In southern Indiana it takes
about four years to grow a 14 inch largemouth bass. In northern Indiana,
it takes five years. And how about that fat 18 incher that's pushing
three pounds? It will be six to eight years old, depending on the
location. And that really big bragging size bass that everyone wants to
catch may need to survive for a decade or longer to reach that size. Not
many bass live that long, even if they do survive being caught. That's
just the way things work in nature.
“Indiana is an intensively fished state and largemouth
bass are a favorite target. With the innovative use of different
size limits matched to particular waters, we believe that bass populations
are in pretty good shape, overall. However, a key to having more real rod-benders
swimming around, especially in the smaller lakes, is catch-and-release,
coupled with quick and gentle handling. It's harder to find a 20-inch bass
in a lake where anglers are keeping every 18-inch bass they catch!
“Small lakes and ponds are an important part of
Indiana's aquatic landscape and virtually all of them contain bass.
There's an estimated 50,000 private ponds scattered across Indiana plus
countless small public lakes and ponds. I think a lot of Hoosier anglers
got their first taste of bass fishing on these smaller waters. Some of
your best chances for hooking up with a bass of record proportions are
these small waters -the more remote and lightly fished, the better.”
To get a better view of the bass fishing picture
on smaller bodies of water in Hoosierland, we asked the five northern district
biologists of the DFW to put names to the spots they think will offer good
bass action this year.
By Districts, they are: District 1--Bob Robertson,
and his assistant, Jeremy Price, 16 counties of the far northwest corner
of the state; District 2, Neil Ledet, three counties of the far northeast
corner of the state; District 3, Jed Pearson, three counties and the northern
part of Kosciusko County, just south of District 2; District 4, Ed Braun,
14 counties south of District 3 and the southern part of Kosciusko County;
District 5, Rhett Weisner, 20 counties the width of the north and central
parts of the state.
Robertson and Price, like other district biologists
of the DFW, find it difficult to nod approvingly on a single body of water
as the best bass water this spring, but they do not hesitate to opt for
eight–acre Knop Lake, the largemouth angling gem of Knop Lake Public Fishing
Area near the town of Edna Mills in Carroll County, and Bruce Lake, 245
Acres, six miles west of Winamac in Pulaski County. Both will offer
good bassin’ this year, they say.
Created by an earthen dam near Wildcat Creek in
1963, Knop Lake was part of a private campground until the DNR gained control
of the property in 1980. Fishing regulations on Knop Lake prior to 1980
was a 12-inch minimum size limit on largemouth bass and six fish. The DFW
quickly upped that 12-inch minimum to 14 inches (the standard minimum for
the state) and launched a series of studies of the lake from 1981 to 1997
and found that it offered little fishing opportunity.
Thus, Knop Lake was renovated in the fall of 1998,
and restocked with 1,635 largemouth bass, including 20 adults, bluegill
, redear sunfish and channel catfish.
Few fish were found in the lake in a follow-up
survey in 1999, but another check of fish populations in 2000 indicated
the renovation was a success, with largemouth bass making up 54 percent
of the fish taken. By weight, largemouth made up 53 percent of the sample.
Bass reproduction and growth rates are excellent, the biologists say.
The Knop Lake Area is on County road 650 South,
west of the town of Edna Mills. Kokomo angler Pat Campbell finds the western
half of Knop best bass fishing. He lso find surface lures effective.
Robertson and Price surveyed Bruce Lake last spring
to collect 970 largemouth that ranged from 4.3 inches to 19.9 inches with
39.6 percent of these fish ranging into “catchable” size. Ten percent of
the catch was 14 inches, legal minimum size.
Price, who has fished the lake for many years
with his father, Jim, says bass tend to congregate in channels, adding
that many of the larger bass found in their survey were in the channel
at the north end of the lake. He also sees the shallow, flat area of southwest
shore as a good bet for bass.
The public access site is off of County Road 150
north at the southwest corner of the lake, about six miles east of Winamac..
Ledet points out that 202-acre Shipshewana Lake,
a mile west of the town of that name in Lagrange County, should not be
overlooked as a bass fishery, but he opts for diminutive Fish Lake, 34
acres, as the top bass spot in District 2. Fish Lake is four miles north
slightly east of Millersburg in Elkhart County.
“They both offer pretty good bass fishing (largemouth
that is), and both have good public access sites,” he says.
The Fish Lake public access site will be found
by taking Ind. Highway 13 roughly 3.5 miles north from Millersburg to County
Road 34, then east to the lake. Public access site for Shipshewana Lake
will befoun a mile west of the town of that name on County Road 250 north
and half a mile north on County Road 900 West.
Ledet says Fish Lake, not to be confused with
upper and lower Fish Lakes of LaPorte County, was first surveyed by fisheries
biologists of the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) in 1970 and 1977
when bluegill and largemouth were dominant species. When the lake was surveyed
again (1987), bluegill remained dominant at 40.1 of all species and
largemouth bass were second, 19.8 percent. Fish management programs were
not recommended at that time.
Biologists believed the lake would take care of
itself, without intervention of man, and the latest survey of the lake
in 2004, tends to support that thinking. The DNR survey that year produced
284 fish of eight species, the dominant species being largemouth bass (35.9
percent), and bluegill (33.8 percent).
Ledet says that 2004 survey brought in 102 largemouth
that weighed 99.36 pounds, ranging from 5.6 inches to 21.7 inches, for
an average of 12-inches. Bass of the 14-inch legal size limit made up 18.6
percent of the sample. He added that 16-inch-plus bass comprised 13.7 percent
of the bass sample. That figure for 18-inch-plus fish was 5.9 percent.
Growth rate of bass of the first year was average,
but in subsequent years growth rates were above average for northeastern
Indiana natural lakes.
Ledet points out that overall numbers of largemouth
bass collected has increased with each survey.
“Fish Lake continues to support a satisfactory
sport fish, community,” Ledet says, adding that it is “dominated by largemouth
bass aqnd bluegills.” The two species represent 79.7 percent of all species
in numbers and 44 percent in weight, he says.
Ledet points out that a 2002 survey of Shipshewana
Lake revealed that 41 percent of the largemouth bass captured (and released)
were 14 inches, or longer, adding that is outstanding for northern Indiana
lakes. He adds that growth rates for all year classes of bass captured
in the survey except four-year-olds were above average for northern Indiana
Choosing the top largemouth bass lake of District
3 was no easier for Pearson than it was for the other fisheries biologists
of the DFW, but after some deliberations he opted for Loon Lake, a 222-acre
natural body of water on the Noble/Whitley county line, roughly seven miles
north of Columbia City.
But after assuring himself that Loon Lake was
the place for a bass angler to be, Pearson pointed out that both Shock
and Spear lakes (on the Tri-County Fish and Wildlife Area) could not be
overlooked by those in quest of a buster bass. Shock, 37 acres, and Spear,
40 acres, are bass-angling mainstays of the DFW’s Quality Bass-Fishing
Program that provides for an 18-inch minimum size limit and daily bag limits
of two fish.
In view of the fact that muskellunge have been
stocked in Loon Lake since 1978 to create a predator-prey situation aimed
at increasing the size of bluegills, Pearson conducted an extensive survey
of the lake in 2004. This survey also was aimed at determining how bass
regulations affected bluegill size and numbers.
With maximum and average depths of 92 and 26 feet,
respectively, and small bluegills dominating Loon Lake, a 12-inch minimum
size limit was installed on largemouth bass in the fall of 1990, and that
was upped to 14-inches in the summer of 1998 when general bass regulations
cut daily creel limits of bass from six to five.
For the record, the predator-prey experiment appears
to have failed to increase the size of bluegills.
“In contrast,” Pearson writes, “the most notable
changes as a result of predator management efforts at Loon
Lake include the creation of muskie fishing opportunities and increases
in density and size structure of largemouth bass. Although overall fishing
effort is down and fewer anglers now fish for bluegills, more than half
of Loon Lake anglers are drawn to bass (41 percent) or muskie (14 percent)
Pearson calculates that Loon Lake hosts 2,931
largemouth bass. He says roughly 1,302 of the bass ranged from 8 to 11
inches at the time of his survey, while 534 were 12 to 13 inchers, and
1,007 ranged from 14 to 17 inches. His study indicated that Loon Lake hosted
88 bass that were 18 inches or larger.
“Largemouth bass growth was normal compared to
other natural lakes in northern Indiana,” Pearson wrote, “although growth
tended to slow slightly at age 2 and age 3 and then increase among age
5 and older bass.”
The Loon Lake public access site will be found
by taking Indiana Highway 109 five miles south of the town of Wolf Lake,
and taking County Line Road 2.5 miles west.
In tapping 59-acre Robinson Lake as the best bass
water in his district, Braun points out that it is one of Indiana’s quality
largemouth bass fisheries, and thus, is the state’s best known lake for
Having been owned and operated for many years
as a Boy Scouts of America camp, it is one of the last lakes in northeastern
Indiana natural-lake country that has little residential development.
Situated some four miles northwest of the town
of Larwill, Robinson Lake straddles the Kosciusko/Whitley County line.
Formerly known as Crossland Scout Reservation, and subjected to very light
fishing pressure for many years, Robinson Lake was purchased by the Department
of Natural Resources in 1992 (DNR) and opened to the public as Deniston
Resource Area in 1992.
Prior to its purchase by the DNR, the only public
access to the lake was via a long, unimproved lane that was controlled
by private landowners who would not allow building, but did maintain a
little-used private ramp available for a fee.
Braun conducted a survey of Robinson Lake fish
populations in 1993. As the results of his findings, Braun estimated that
Robinson Lake hosted more than 30 largemouth bass per acres, one of the
best populations in numbers of any natural lakes of the state.
Moreover, Braun’s studies of the lake indicated
some eight percent of the bass of the lake were 18 inches or longer.
“To prevent over-exploitation of this fishery
with expected increase in fishing pressure . . . changes in largemouth
bass size and bag limits were proposed,” Braun wrote in a report on his
studies. These changes became regulations in 1996. Size and daily bag limits
remain at 18-inch minimum, and two bass per day.
Wisener faced an even greater dilemma when asked
to pick a small bass lake that was better than all others in his district.
But, in view of the fact that his district is about twice as big as any
of the others, this is not difficult to understand.
Thus, it was not surprising when he--with wrinkled
brow--he opted for a triumvirate of bass lakes he thinks will be hot this
year, stating that he would be hard pressed to say which of the three will
be best. So bassers will get three for the price of one in District 5.
We offer these man-made lakes in the order that
they were mentioned.
They are: Rockville Lake, 100 acres on the north
side of the town of Rockville in Parke County; Whitewater Lake, 199 acres
in Whitewater Memorial State Park in Union County; and Middle Fork Reservoir,
177 acres, a water-supply reservoir for the city of Richmond.
Here are thumbnail sketches of the candidates:
ROCKVILLE LAKE--Owned and operated by the
Little Raccoon Conservancy District, this small watershed lake was built
in 1972. It hosted an over population of bluegill, and a marked shortage
of largemouth from the start.
Fisheries biologists suggested winter draw downs
of the water level , and this management tool appeared to give existing
bass populations a chance to eliminate some of the ‘gills while bringing
numbers of the two mainstay species into better balance.
Bass were the dominant species through most of
the 1990s, Wisner says, adding that an ideal balance of the two species
seemed to exist in a DFW survey of the lake in 2001.
Bluegill was the dominant species in a 2003 survey,
but bass were a close second. Wisener says that survey counted 299 bass,
19.9 percent of the total sample in numbers, and 50.6 percent in weight.
Bass ranged up to 15.2. inches and averaged 8.9 inches.
Wisener says the important growth rates were about
normal for one and two-year old bass, slightly above normal with 3-YOs,
and normal at four. Bass tend to hit the magic 14-inch mark at four, he
WHITEWATER LAKE--Built in 1949, Whitewater
Lake’s game fish population suffered from an overpopulation of shad, and
a spillway that periodically needed repairs until it was replaced in 2001.
However, replacement of the spillway would eventually
lead to a solution to the shad problem--however temporary that may be--and
to a burgeoning population of bass after the lake was restocked in the
fall of 2001
A fisheries survey in 2002 to evaluate the success
of the eradication and stockings indicated bluegills were the most abundant
species, but largemouth bass accounted for 25.1% of the sample by
number and 18.2% by weight. One hundred bass were collected that
weighed 19.45 pounds. Length frequency indicates that the adult largemouth
stocked in the spring spawned successfully as 67% of the bass collected
were probably young-of-the-year (YOY) fish. YOY bass measured 3.1 to 6.3
inches long, and fingerlings stocked the previous fall ranged in length
from 8.8 to 10.8 inches.
Wisener says that survey turned up only one 15-inch
bass, but he points out that growth rates are better than normal. That
should mean that many of the sub-legal size bass found in the 2002 survey
will meet, or top, the 14-inch legal size this year.
MIDDLE FORK RESERVOIR--built as a city
of Richmond water supply reservoir in the early 1960s, Middle Fork Reservoir
is managed by the Parks and Recreation Department of that city.
Bluegill and white crappie dominated Middle Fork’s
early history, but by 2000 the largemouth bass population had expanded.
Wisener’s 2002 survey counted 191 largemouth bass,
and they weighed 178.71 pounds. Bass were again first in abundance
by number (27.2%) and second by weight (19.8%).
In the 2002 survey, bass ranged in length from
5.3 to 17.8 inches and averaged 12.2 inches. Nearly 81% of the largemouth
ranged in length from 11.5 to 13.5 inches and many of these fish were 3Yos.
The percentage of bass that met the minimum size limit of 14 inches (7.3%)
slightly increased since the 2000 survey (4.3%).
“Compared to other populations of largemouth bass
across central Indiana, bass at Middle Fork Reservoir are growing slightly
better than normal to age 3 and near normal after that,” Wisener said.